Energy: Why we need it? Where do we get it?

April 5, 2016

060801_trafficjams_hmed_1phmediumReading all the articles against fossil fuels and for renewable energy sources has been both fascinating and frustrating. As a retiree who worked in the petroleum sector both for industry and government regulators for over 35 years I have my opinions. Note that when I refer to “energy” I’m referring to all sources of energy not just oil and gas and coal (fossil fuels).

First I urge all people and organizations involved and interested in energy and its impact on the environment and the human race to get educated. Obtain your information from a variety of sources not just the media. Use government, industry and scientific sources to read up on the subject. Next look at where you and your family use energy and products derived from petroleum in your daily life. Ask intelligent questions and make sure you get answers. The entire realm is getting far too emotional and needs more realism injected.

Facts to remember,

  • Society requires energy to maintain our lifestyle.
  • Energy in all forms is needed to ensure the health, welfare and survival of the human species.
  • Energy is needed by humans to feed us, heat us, maintain health and allow us to transport goods, services and people from place to place.

The key question is how to obtain this energy in a way that is economical and yet environmentally friendly. Energy sources must also be sustainable to ensure society continues to progress.

Renewable sources of energy are important, but it will take time to develop them so they are reliable and cost efficient. Crude oil and natural gas will continue to be extremely important for a long time to come, however, much can be done and is being done to produce and utilize these in a more efficient and environmentally sustainable manner. Reducing the carbon footprint is good business for petroleum producers.

Revenues obtained from fossil fuel production will enable us to investigate and perfect the use of renewable energy sources such as solar, wind and geothermal. It will not be cheap at least initially to convert and move toward more dependence on other sources of energy. On the plus side this will be exciting and many economic opportunities will be available over the coming years related to the more intensive use of renewables.

One point that seems to escape activists is that government and industry are buying into the need to become more efficient and reduce that carbon footprint, but the other side of the coin involves the consumers of the energy. Individuals, industrial operations and governments who use the energy have to do their part to reduce energy use, and most of all to use energy more efficiently. Both sides must work together. Energy producers are in the business of supplying energy because there is a demand and a need for it.

Where we as a society need and use energy must be clearly identified and prioritized. Once this is done it will ensure we don’t leave ourselves short of what we need. It will allow us to concentrate our efforts to reduce the carbon footprint where it is most effective, obviously in those areas where it is consumed in the greatest amounts at the present time.

Myths that need to be dispelled,

  • Energy producers don’t care about the environment. False. Real people work for these companies and let me assure you they do care deeply. All human operations and activities impact safety and the environment in some way. The goal is to mitigate and minimize these impacts.
  • Energy producers don’t care about spills and other threats to the environment from their operations. False. They do care for several reasons, it is very expensive to have a spill and it is terrible to the operators reputation. Reputation is a huge financial asset to a good operator. Environmental protection and the safety of the companies employees, contractors and the general public is priority one.
  • Regulatory approvals for energy development such as pipelines are just rubber stamped by governments. False. In fact the opposite is true. Laws and regulations governing energy development in Canada are the toughest in the world. I know because I worked for both sides over my career. I was with the Regulator and educated and enforced these rules and regulations. I also worked for energy operators in obtaining these approvals and in ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements for all our operations. Regulatory, safety and environmental compliance is the number one priority for both energy operators and the regulators in this country.

So the next time your commute to work, drive your vehicle, buy groceries, purchase goods for you home or your leisure activities think about the energy required to produce those goods and services, and to transport them to the store near you.


Energy and Human Impacts: Can we sustain our lifestyle and protect the environment?

July 16, 2015
Alberta in her magnificence. Gov. of Alberta photo

Alberta in her magnificence. Gov. of Alberta photo

Disclaimer: I have been employed in various aspects of the energy industry since 1977. The views expressed in this article are mine and mine alone.

Overview:

We humans need energy to power our lives and sustain our lifestyle. The challenge is to provide relatively cheap energy in an environmentally clean and a safe manner. Human population is increasing and so is the demand for energy. The Province of Alberta, Canada where I live is resource-rich. Human development of any type results in a footprint and impacts. Sustainable development means doing the utmost to minimize the impacts.

Energy in Alberta:
Oil (2013)
– Canada has the third largest oil reserves in the world, 97% of these are in the oil sands of Alberta.
– Alberta exports 2,000,000 barrels/day of crude oil to the United States.
– To the rest of Canada it exports 323,000 barrels/day.

Natural Gas (2013)
– Established reserves 32 trillion cubic feet.
– Alberta produces 10.1 billion cubic feet/day.

Coal (2013)
– Established reserves 33.4 billion tonnes.
– Alberta produces 27.9 million tonnes/year.

Where Does Alberta get its Electrical Generating Capacity? (2013)
– Total is 14,003 megawatts (MW).
– Coal power 42%.
– Natural Gas 41%.
– Renewable/Alternate 17% (wind, solar and hydro-electric)

Revenue to Government of Alberta (2014/15 Budget)
– Total government revenue from all sources $44.354 billion.
– Non-renewable Resource Revenue $9.209 billion or 20.76% of the total.

oil-sands-pic

Meeting the Challenges:

Greenhouse Gases (GHG)
-Federal and Provincial Governments and industry are working cooperatively to reduce these.
– Using natural gas in place of coal reduces GHG emissions by roughly 50%.
– Wind power is growing in Alberta and other jurisdictions. Alberta is blessed (or cursed) with strong steady winds, especially in the south.

Protecting the Environment
– The oil and gas industry in Alberta is the most highly regulated in the world.
-All mining operations including in the oil sands must be reclaimed to their natural states. This is a regulatory requirement, not an option. Reclamation is on-going as an area is mined.
– Environmental protection is a priority and a requirement for all projects in all industries within Alberta.

Wind turbine in SW Alberta. Photo by SB Davis

Wind turbine in SW Alberta. Photo by SB Davis

Consumers/Individual’s Role in Energy Sustainability
– As consumers of energy we can all work to reduce the impact by using energy more efficiently therefore reducing demand. Reduce, reuse, and recycle.
– We must educate ourselves about the energy industry and how we use energy in our everyday lives.
– Get involved in issues that affect you. Understand all sides of the problems.

Summary:

As an Albertan I’m proud of my province and the contributions it makes to Canada and the world. I don’t pretend the oil and gas industry is perfect, but further investigation will demonstrate they are concerned and making serious efforts to reduce the impacts.

Further Reading:
Alberta Energy (Government of Alberta)
http://www.energy.alberta.ca/

Alberta Energy Regulator (formerly the ERCB)
http://www.aer.ca

Clean Air Strategic Alliance (CASA)
http://casahome.org

National Energy Board of Canada (NEB)
http://www.neb-one.gc.ca/index-eng.html

Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP)
http://www.capp.ca

Canada’s Oil Sands Innovation Alliance (COSIA)
http://www.cosia.ca

Canadian Energy Pipeline Association
http://www.cepa.com


Alternatives to Fossil Fuels: An overview

June 24, 2015
Wind farm in central Montana. Photo SB Davis

Wind farm in central Montana. Photo SB Davis

Recently I discussed the G-7 pledge to decarbonize our economies by 2100. As a follow up let’s talk about energy sources and fuels able to take the place of carbon-based ones like coal, crude oil, and natural gas. Remember we have to find something that will power our automobiles and trucks, heat our homes and power our cities. Whatever it is must be non-polluting, not produce greenhouse gases, be abundant, cheap and easy to produce, transport and store.

Hydrogen:

The best candidate is hydrogen the most abundant element in the universe. Hydrogen fuel cells are already in use powering vehicles, cars, trucks and buses. There are rumours in the automotive world BMW is planning to introduce a hydrogen powered car in the near future.

The challenge is the ability to produce, transport and store hydrogen safely and cheaply. In the United States the Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting feasibility studies for many years into the use of hydrogen as a fuel and energy source that could replace fossil fuels. In Canada, and British Columbia in particular, there are buses and cars being operated using hydrogen fuel cells as the power source.

The biggest drawback right now is the lack of infrastructure. There are only a few filling stations dispensing hydrogen for vehicles. Best of all vehicles powered by hydrogen are 100% non-polluting. The by-product is water. However it does take energy to obtain hydrogen.

Nuclear Energy:

Nuclear power generation supplies roughly 20% of the energy needs of the United States today. Energy produced by nuclear means is clean and non-polluting. The major disadvantage is the need for safe, secure long-term storage of the radioactive waste produced.

Solar Power:

Power from our sun has great potential, but technology needs to be developed further to make it a viable source as a replacement. Solar is being used to generate power at many locations around the world. Solar panels are used to heat water and supply power to remote locations.

If all the solar energy the sun bombards our Earth with could be captured it would exceed the world’s energy needs 10,000 times over. It is an inexhaustible supply of free energy, but it has to be captured and stored economically and efficiently.

Wind Power:

Power from the wind is at first glance a viable option, but it is restricted because it is intermittent. The number of wind turbines needed to generate massive amounts of energy is prohibitive. It’s definitely a power source that should be in the mix, but realistically not a great alternative to fossil fuel by itself. The wind turbines are considered unsightly by many and the blades kill many birds.

Others:

Hydro-electric, Tidal and Geo-thermal power are all site-specific meaning they can’t be generated everywhere. Also the sources of these types of power are limited. So although good clean, economic sources of energy their use is restricted to local areas.

I believe over the long-term fossil fuels can be largely replaced, but much work remains to be done. These research and feasibility studies must be continued. In parallel with the use of fossil fuels. Society must prepare for the day when we can decarbonize our economies. Our long term future depends on it. Meanwhile fossil fuels are here to stay. We need to use them wisely and reduce their footprint.


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